In a group of mostly young, low-income mothers, tobacco and marijuana use during pregnancy were associated with maternal stress and aggression before and after giving birth, as well as negative birth outcomes such as lower birthweight and greater infant emotional reactivity.
In young newly-licensed drivers, self-reported inattention and impulsivity were associated with more errors on a simulated driving test.
Three-year-old children had better executive function (focus, planning, and self-control) when their fathers supported their success and independence instead of criticizing or controlling their actions.
Children were more likely to have behavioral issues and mental health problems when their parents, particularly their mothers, had four or more severe negative childhood experiences, like abuse or parental divorce.
Kids learning to read improved more when they read alongside an audio rendition of the text, compared to those who read silently.
Excessive mobile device use (more than 1 hour per day) among six-year-old children was associated with behavioral issues and hyperactivity/inattention, based on parents' reports.
Sugar consumption is associated with more frequent risky behavior, such as fighting, bullying, drinking, and smoking, in adolescents. Consuming sugary drinks is more strongly associated with risky behavior than consuming sweets such as chocolate and candy.
In 4th- and 7th-grade children, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with childhood hypertension. This relationship was greater for 7th-grade children and boys regardless of age.
In 10th-grade students, those from low-income families were less likely to have a growth mindset (belief that intelligence is not fixed, and can be developed) than students from high-income families. However, having a growth mindset reduced the negative effects of being poor on school achievement.